Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Environment Programme of the United Nations
Published November 2001 by the Secretariat for The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer &
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer United Nations Environment Programme
PO Box 30552
Printed and bound in Kenya by UNON. Printed on recycled paper.
Cover design by UNON Printshop (November 2001)
Co-ordination: Nelson Sabogal, Senior Scientific Affairs Officer
Gilbert M. Bankobeza, Senior Legal Officer
Layout and Formatting: Gerald Mutisya
Martha Adila Mulumba
Introduction ..................................................................1 Article 1: Definitions.........................................................2 Article 2: General obligations.................................................2 Article 3: Research and systematic observations................................3 Article 4: Co-operation in the legal, scientific and technical fields .........4 Article 5: Transmission of information ........................................5 Article 6: Conference of the Parties ..........................................5 Article 7: Secretariat.........................................................7 Article 8: Adoption of protocols...............................................8 Article 9: Amendment of the Convention or protocols ...........................8 Article 10: Adoption and amendment of annexes..................................9 Article 11: Settlement of disputes ...........................................11 Article 12: Signature ........................................................11 Article 13: Ratification, acceptance or approval..............................12 Article 14: Accession.........................................................12 Article 15: Right to vote ....................................................13 Article 16: Relationship between the Convention and its protocols ............13 Article 17: Entry into force..................................................13 Article 18: Reservations......................................................14 Article 19: Withdrawal........................................................14 Article 20: Depositary........................................................15 Article 21: Authentic texts...................................................15 Annex I: Research and systematic observations.................................16 Annex II: Information exchange ...............................................22 Declarations..................................................................24
VIENNA CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER
Parties to this Convention, Aware quite harmful impact on human health and the environment through modification of the ozone layer, Recalling the relevant provisions of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, and in particular principle 21, which provides that “States, in accordance with the UN Charter and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction and control, not harm the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, “taking into account the conditions and special requirements of developing countries, aware procedure work and studies within national and international organizations, in particular , Global Action Plan for the Ozone Layer for the Environment Programme of the United Nations, also conscious precautions for the protection of the ozone layer which have already been undertaken at the national and international measures for the conscious protection layer ozone changes due to human activities require international action and cooperation should be based on relevant scientific and technical considerations, the conscious also the need for further research and systematic observations for further development of scientific knowledge about the ozone layer and potential negative effects that come as a result of its change. Determined to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting from the change of the ozone layer, HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
Article 1: Definitions For the purposes of this Convention:
- “The ozone layer” means the layer of atmospheric ozone above the planetary boundary layer.
- “Adverse effects” means changes in the physical environment or biota, including climate change, which have harmful effects on many important human health or on the composition, in the resilience and productivity of natural ecosystems and administered or the materials necessary for humanity.
- “Equipment or alternative technology” means technology or equipment, the use of which makes it possible to reduce or effectively eliminate emissions of substances which have or are likely to have negative impacts on the ozone layer.
- “Alternative substances” means substances which reduce, eliminate or prevent negative effects on the ozone layer.
- “Party” means, except if the context indicates otherwise, the Parties to this Convention.
- “Regional economic integration organization” means an organization established by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in terms of the issues covered by this Convention or its protocols, which is authorized under rules, in accordance with its internal procedures to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to instruments in question.
- “Protocol” means protocols to this Convention.
Article 2: General Liabilities
- The Parties shall take appropriate measures in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and those Protocols in force to which they are party to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely come as a result of human activities which modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer.
- To this end, the Parties, in accordance with the methods at their disposal and their capacity to:
(a) Collaborate through systematic observations, research and information exchange, in order to better understand and assess the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and the effects caused on human health and the environment from modification of the ozone layer;
(b) adopt appropriate legislative and administrative measures and co-operate in harmonizing appropriate policies to control, limit, reduce or prevent human activities under their jurisdiction or control if it is found that these activities have or are likely to have effects coming from modifying harmful to the ozone layer;
(c) Cooperate in the formulation of measures, procedures and standards for which it is agreed, the implementation of this Convention, taking aim, by adopting the protocols and annexes;
(d) cooperate with competent international bodies to implement more effective this Convention and protocols to which they are parties.
- The provisions of this Convention shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt, in accordance with international law, domestic measures additional to those mentioned above in paragraph 1 and 2, nor affect measures additional interior already taken by a Party, provided that such measures are not incompatible with their obligations to the Convention.
- The implementation of this Article shall be based on relevant scientific and technical considerations.
Article 3: Research and systematic observations
- The Parties undertake, as appropriate, initiate and cooperate, directly or through competent international bodies, the conduct of research and scientific assessments on:
(a) chemical and physical processes that may affect the ozone layer;
(b) human health and other biological effects resulting from modification of the ozone layer, particularly those resulting from changes in solar ultraviolet rays having biological effects (UV-B);
(c) climatic effects resulting from any changes in the ozone layer;
(d) effects arising from any changes to the ozone layer and any subsequent changes in UV-B radiation on natural and synthetic materials useful to mankind;
(e) Substances, practices, processes, and activities that may affect the ozone layer, and their cumulative effects;
(f) Alternative substances and technologies;
(g) socio-economic issues related to them; and as further elaborated in annexes I and II.
- The Parties undertake to promote or establish, as appropriate, directly or through competent international bodies and taking fully into account national legislation and relevant ongoing activities at national and international levels, joint or complementary programs for systematic observations of the state of the ozone layer and other relevant parameters, as elaborated in Annex I.
- The Parties undertake to cooperate, directly or through competent international bodies, to ensure the collection, validation and transmission of research and data from global observations through the respective centers of data on a regular timetable.
Article 4: Cooperation in the legal, scientific and technical areas.
- The Parties shall facilitate and encourage the exchange of scientific, technical, socio – economic, commercial and legal information concerning this Convention as further elaborated in Annex II. Such information will be given to bodies agreed upon by the Parties. Any such body that receives confidential information from a party that provides award of it, will ensure that information is not widespread and will collect it to protect its confidentiality before it is made available to all Parties.
- The Parties, in accordance with national laws, regulations and practices, and taking into account mainly the needs of developing countries will cooperate in promoting, directly or through competent international bodies for development and transfer of technology and knowledge. This cooperation will be carried out mainly through:
(a) Facilitating the acquisition of alternative technologies by other Parties;
(b) supply information on alternative technologies and equipment and the provision of special manuals or guides to them;
(c) the provision of necessary equipment and facilities for research and systematic observations;
(d) Training relevant scientific and technical personnel.
Article 5: Transmission of information
Parties, through the Secretariat shall transmit to the Conference of the Parties established under Article 6, information on the measures adopted by them to implement the Convention and the Protocols to which they are party, in such form and at such intervals of time that meetings parties shall determine the appropriate instruments.
Article 6: Conference of the Parties
- For this reason, it created a Conference of the Parties. The first meeting of the Conference of the Parties by the secretariat will be held provisionally appointed under section 7, no later than one year after the entry into force of this Convention. Thereafter, ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at regular intervals determined by the Conference of the Parties at its first meeting.
- Extraordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held whenever deemed necessary by the Conference, or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months from the date of communication to request the Secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
- Conference of the Parties shall agree by consensus and shall adopt rules of procedure and financial rules for itself and for any subsidiary body it may establish, as well as financial provisions will be needed for the functioning of the secretariat.
- Conference of the Parties shall keep under continuous review the implementation of this Convention, and furthermore:
(a) shall determine the form and the intervals transmission of information to be submitted in accordance with Article 5 and will consider this information as well as reports submitted by any subsidiary body;
(b) review the scientific information on the ozone layer, on its possible changes and the possible effects of this change;
(c) Promote, in accordance with article 2, the harmonization of appropriate policies, strategies and measures for minimizing the release of substances that cause or are likely to cause modification of the ozone layer and make recommendations on any other measures relating to this Convention;
(d) shall adopt, in accordance with Articles 3 and 4, programs for research, systematic observations, scientific and technological cooperation, exchange of information and transfer of technology and knowledge;
(e) shall consider and adopt, as appropriate, in accordance with Articles 9 and 10, amendments to this Convention and its annexes;
(f) will consider amendments to any protocol, as well as any annex them, and, if so decided, recommend their adoption to the parties to the protocol concerned;
(g) shall consider and adopt, as appropriate, in accordance with article 10, additional annexes to this Convention;
(h) shall consider and adopt, as appropriate, protocols in accordance with Article 8;
(i) will create / establish such subsidiary organs, so far as is necessary for the implementation of this Convention.
(j) shall require, where appropriate, the competent service of international bodies and scientific committees, in particular the World Meteorological Organization and the World Health Organization and Coordination Committee on the Ozone Layer, in scientific research, systematic observations and activities the objectives of this Convention, using, as appropriate, to obtain relevant information from these bodies and committees.
(k) will consider and undertake any additional action that may be required to achieve the objectives of this Convention.
- United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not Party to this Convention, may be represented at meetings of the Conference of the Parties by observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, qualified in fields relating to the protection of the ozone layer, the Secretariat expressed the desire to be represented at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties as an observer may be admitted is not disputed by at least one third of the Parties. Acceptance of participation of observers shall be established according to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
Article 7: Secretariat
- The secretariat functions will be:
(a) To organize meetings of the services provided under Articles 6, 8, 9 dhe10;
(b) Prepare and distribute reports based on information received in accordance with Articles 4 and 5, and on the basis of information received from the subsidiary bodies established under section 6;
(c) To perform the functions that are defined by each protocol;
(d) To prepare reports on its activities carried out in the implementation of its functions under the Convention and submit them to the Conference of the Parties.
(e) To ensure the necessary coordination with other relevant international bodies, and in particular to enter into such administrative and contractual requirements as may be required for effective performance of its functions.
(f) To perform such other functions, which can be determined by the Conference of the Parties.
- The functions of the Secretariat shall be temporarily exercised by the United Nations Program for the Environment until after the first ordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties held in accordance with Article 6 In its first meeting common, the Conference of Parties will appoint competent secretariat between existing international organizations, which have expressed their desire to undertake the function of secretariat of the Convention
Article 8: Adoption of protocols
- Conference of the Parties, at a meeting, may adopt protocols pursuant to Article 2.
- The text of any proposed protocol shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before such a meeting.
Article 9: Amendments to the Convention or the Protocols
- Any Party may propose amendments to this Convention or to any protocol. Such amendments shall take into account, inter alia, the relevant scientific and technical considerations.
- Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. Amendments to any protocol shall be adopted at a meeting of the Parties to the protocol in question. The text of any proposed amendment to this Convention or to any protocol, except as may be otherwise provided in this Protocol shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed to adaptation. The Secretariat shall also communicate, proposed amendments to the signatories of the information for this Convention.
- The Parties shall make every effort to agree by consensus on any proposed amendment to this Convention. If all efforts are exhausted to agree with the consensus, and fail to agree, as a last resort, the amendment will be adopted by three-fourths majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting and will submitted by the Depositary to all Parties for ratification, approval or acceptance.
- The procedure referred to in paragraph 3 above shall apply to amendments to any protocol, except when two-thirds majority of the Parties to this Protocol present and voting at the meeting shall suffice for adaptation.
- Ratification, approval or acceptance of the amendments would be made known in writing to the Depositary. Amendments adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 or 4 above shall enter into force between the Parties which have accepted them on the ninetieth day after the receipt by the Depositary notification for ratification, approval or acceptance by at least three-fourths of the Parties in this Convention or by at least two-thirds of the parties to the protocol in question, except as may be otherwise provided in such protocol. After that, the amendments will enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the deposit side of its instruments of ratification, approval or acceptance of the amendments.
- For the purposes of this article, “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.
Article 10: Adoption and amendment of annexes
- Annexes to this Convention or to any Protocol shall form an integral part of this Convention or of such protocol, as the case may be, and unless otherwise expressly specified, a reference to this Convention or its protocols constitutes at the same time a reference to any of its annex. Such schedules shall be limited to matters scientific, technical and administrative.
- Except as may be otherwise provided in any protocol with respect to its annexes, the following procedure shall apply to the proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to this Convention or annexes to a protocol:
(a) Annexes to this Convention shall be proposed and adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 9, paragraphs 2 and 3, while annexes to any protocol shall be proposed and adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 9, paragraphs 2 and 4;
(b) Any Party that is unable to approve an additional annex to this Convention or an annex to a protocol in which it is a Party shall notify the Depositary in writing, within six months from the date of communication of the adoption by the Depositary . The Depositary shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification received. A Party may, at any time, you can substitute an acceptance for a previous declaration of objection and the annexes shall thereafter enter into force for that Party;
(c) At the end of six months from the date of circulation of the communication by the Depositary, the annex shall become effective for all Parties to this Convention or to any protocol in respect of which have not submitted a notification in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b) above.
- The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to this Convention or to any protocol shall be subject to the same procedure as for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the Convention or annexes to a protocol. Moreover, annexes and amendments, shall consider, inter alia, scientific and technical considerations.
- If an additional annex or amendment to an annex involves an amendment to this Convention or any protocol thereto, the additional annex or amended annex shall enter into force as long as the need to enter into force an amendment to this Convention or protocol has to do with it.
Article 11: Settlement of Disputes
- In the event of a dispute between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, the Parties concerned shall find the solution through negotiations.
- If the parties concerned fail to agree through negotiation, they may jointly find a suitable environment or require an intermediary, such as getting a third party.
- After ratification, acceptance or approval of this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State or regional economic integration organization may declare in writing to the Depositary that for a pending litigation in accordance with paragraph 1 or 2 as above, accept one or two ways of binding dispute settlement:
(a) arbitrariness in accordance with procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its first meeting of the ordinary;
(b) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.
- If the Parties, in accordance with paragraph 3, above, have not accepted the same procedure or any of them, the dispute shall be submitted for compliance in accordance with paragraph 5 below, except if the parties agree otherwise.
- There will be a conciliation commission based on the request of one of the parties to the dispute. The Commission shall be composed of an equal number of members appointed by each party concerned and a chairman chosen jointly by the members who chose each party. The Commission will provide a final assessment and recommendation which the parties shall consider in good faith.
- The provisions of this Article shall apply with respect to any protocol except as otherwise provided in the protocol concerned.
Article 12: Signature
This Convention shall be open for signature by States and by regional economic integration organizations in the Federal Ministry of Foreign Relations of the Republic of Austria, in Vienna, from March 22nd 1985 to September 21st 1985 and the headquarters of the United Nations in New York from September 22nd 1985 to March 21st 1986.
Article 13: Ratification, acceptance or approval
- This Convention and any protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and by regional economic integration organizations. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Depositary.
- Any organization referred to in paragraph 1 above which becomes a Party to this Convention or in any protocol, without any pair of its member States, shall be bound by all the obligations in the Convention or protocol, as the case . Where such organizations, one or more member States which are Parties to the Convention or the relevant protocol, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of the obligations in the Convention or protocol, as the case . In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be permitted to simultaneously exercise the rights under the Convention or the relevant protocol.
- In their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval, the organizations referred to in paragraph 1 above shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to matters covered by this Convention or the relevant protocol. These organizations will inform the Depositary of any substantial change in the scope of their powers.
Article 14: Accession
- This Convention and any protocol shall be open for accession by States and regional economic integration organizations, starting from the date on which finishes signing of the Convention and the Protocol in question. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
- In their instruments of accession, the organizations referred to in paragraph 1 above shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to matters covered by the Convention or the relevant protocol. These organizations shall also inform depositors of any significant changes to the scope of their powers.
- The provisions of Article 13, paragraph 2, will be implemented by regional economic integration organizations which accede to this Convention or to any protocol.
Article 15: Right to vote
- Each Party to this Convention or Protocol shall have one vote.
- Except as provided in paragraph 1 above, regional organizations of economic integration, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties the Convention or the relevant protocol. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their member States exercise theirs and vice versa.
Article 16: The relationship between the Convention and its protocols.
- A State or a regional economic integration organization may not be party to a protocol, except if it is or becomes, at the same time, the Parties to the Convention.
- Decisions concerning any protocol shall be taken only by the Parties to the protocol in question.
Article 17: Entry into force.
- This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
- Any protocol, except as otherwise provided in such protocol, shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the instrument of the eleventh instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Protocol or acceding to the.
- For each Party which ratifies, accepts or approves this Convention or acceding to it after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, it shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the Party its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
- Any protocol, except as otherwise provided in such protocol, shall enter into force for a Party that ratifies, accepts or approves the present Protocol or acceding to it after its entry into force, in accordance with paragraph 2 above, on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or on the date on which the Convention enters into force for that Party, whichever is the latter.
- For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited by each regional organization to economic integration, will not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.
Article 18: Reservations to this Convention shall be made to any reservation.
Article 19: Withdrawal
- At any time after four years from the date on which the Convention entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by making a written notification to the Depositary.
- Except as otherwise provided in any protocol, at any time after four years from the date on which such protocol has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Protocol by making a written notice to Depository.
- Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon the expiration of one year after the date of receipt by the Depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of the withdrawal.
- Any Party which withdraws from this Convention shall be deemed that she is also attracted to any protocol to which it is party.
Article 20: Depositary
- Secretary General of the United Nations will take over as the Depositary of this Convention and of any protocol.
- The Depositary shall inform the Parties, in particular:
(a) The signature of this Convention and of any protocol, and the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in accordance with Articles 13 and 14;
(b) the date on which the Convention and any of its protocol will enter into force in accordance with Article 17;
(c) Notifications of withdrawal made in accordance with Article 19;
(d) Amendments adopted in connection with the Convention and any protocol thereto, their acceptance by the parties and the date of their entry into force in accordance with Article 9;
(e) All communications related to the adoption and approval of annexes and amendments to the Annexes in accordance with Article 10;
(f) Notifications by regional economic integration organizations to expand the powers in relation to matters covered by the Convention and its protocol each and every modification thereof.
(g) Statements made in accordance with Article 11, paragraph 3.
Article 21: Authentic texts
The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized for this reason, have signed this Convention.
DONE in Vienna on MARCH 22nd 1985
Annex I: Research and systematic observations
- Parties to this Convention recognize that the major scientific issues are:
(a) Modification of the ozone layer which would cause a change in the amount of ultraviolet radiation having biological effects (UV-B) reaching the earth’s surface and the potential consequences for human health, for organisms, ecosystems and materials usable by mankind; (b) Modification of the vertical distribution of ozone, which can change the temperature structure of the atmosphere and the potential consequences for weather and climate.
- Parties to the Convention, in accordance with Article 3, shall cooperate in conducting research and systematic observations and in formulating recommendations for future research and observations in areas such as:
(a) Research on the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere
i) Comprehensive theoretical models: further development of models which consider the interaction between radiation processes, dynamic and chemical; simultaneous studies of the effects of various man-made and naturally the species on atmospheric ozone; interpretation of data obtained from satellite measurements with and without satellite; evaluating the tendency of atmospheric and geophysical parameters and the development of methods to attribute changes in these parameters to specific causes;
ii) laboratory studies: odds ratio, indirect absorption processes and mechanisms of tropospheric and stratospheric chemical and photochemical processes; spectroscopic data to support field measurements in all relevant spectral regions;
iii) Field measurements: the concentration and flux of the main gases that serve as natural resources as well as anthropogenic origin; atmospheric dynamics studies; Simultaneous measurements of species related to photochemistry down to the planetary boundary line, using the instruments of the country and away from the study; comparison of different sensors, including coordinated measurements correlated to satellite instruments; three-dimensional fields of atmospheric tracers main ingredient, solar spectral flux and meteorological parameters;
iv) Development of instruments, including satellite and non-satellite sensors for atmospheric tracers ingredient, solar flux and meteorological parameters;
(b) Research on the effects on health, biological and photodegrading.
i) The relationship between human exposure to solar radiation and ultraviolet and visible a) development of the two types of skin cancer, melanoma and non-melanoma and b) the effects on the immune system;
ii) The effects of UV-B radiation, including the wavelength dependence on
a) agricultural crops, forests and other terrestrial ecosystems and
b) water and food network fishing and possible banning of oxygen production by marine phytoplankton;
iii) The mechanisms by which UV-B radiation acts on biological materials, species and ecosystems, including the relationship between dose, dose rate, and response; photorepair, adaptation, and protection.
iv) Studies of biological action spectra and spectral response using polychrome radiation in order to include possible interactions of regions with different lengths of waves.
v) The influence of UV-B radiation on: the sensitivities and activities of biological species important to the biospheric balance; Key processes such as photosynthesis and biosynthesis;
vi) The influence of UV-B radiation on photodegradation of pollutants, agricultural chemicals and other materials.
(c) Research on effects on climate
i) Theoretical and observational studies on radiation effects of ozone and other tracer species and the impact on climate parameters, such as temperature of the earth’s surface and oceans, rainfall characteristics, and the exchange between the troposphere and stratosphere;
ii) investigation of the effects of such climate impacts on various aspects of human activity.
(d) Systematic observations on:
i) the state of the ozone layer (ie the spatial and temporal change of the total column content and vertical distribution) by creating the Global Observation System Ozone systems integration based on satellite and ground-based, fully operational;
ii) tropospheric and stratospheric concentrations of source gases for Hox, NOx, carbon ClOx and families;
iii) temperature in the Mesosphere from the ground, using the two systems, and satellite and land-based;
iv) The wavelength selected for the solar flux reaching, and thermal radiation leaving the earth’s atmosphere, using satellite measurements.
v) The wavelength selected for the solar flux that reaches the earth’s surface in the ultraviolet range, having biological effects (UV-B);
vi) Aerosol properties and distribution of land in the Mesosphere, using satellite systems, ground-based and airborne origin.
vii) the important climate variables by keeping the surface meteorological measurements programs of high quality.
viii) tracer species, temperatures, solar flux and aerosols using improved methods for analyzing global data.
- Parties to the Convention shall co-operate, taking into account the key needs of developing countries, in promoting the appropriate scientific training and technical support needed to participate in systematic observations and research as defined in this annex. Special emphasis should be given to intercalibration instruments and methods of observation with a view to generate comparable data sets and standardized.
- The following chemical substances of natural and anthropogenic origin, not listed by priority, are thought to have the potential to modify the chemical and physical properties of the ozone layer.
(a) Carbon substances
i) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon monoxide has significant natural resources and anthropogenic, and is thought to play a direct role in tropospheric photochemistry and indirect role in stratospheric photochemistry.
ii) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide has significant natural resources and anthropogenic affects stratospheric ozone by influencing the thermal structure of the atmosphere.
iii) Methane (CH4) Methane has natural and anthropogenic sources, and affects both tropospheric ozone and in the stratospheric.
iv) species / species of non-methane hydrocarbons non-methane hydrocarbon species, which consist of a large number of chemical substances have natural and anthropogenic sources, and play a direct role in tropospheric photochemistry and an indirect role in stratospheric photochemistry.
(b) Nitrogen substances
i) nitrogen oxide (N2O) dominant sources of N2O are natural ones, but anthropogenic contributions are becoming increasingly important. Nitric oxide is the primary source of stratospheric NOx, which plays a key role in controlling excessive stratospheric ozone.
ii) nitrogen oxides (NOX) ground-level sources of NOx play a major direct role only in tropospheric photochemical processes and an indirect role in stratospheric photochemistry while NOX injection quantities near the tropopause can cause a direct change in upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone.
(c) Chloride substances
i) fully halogenated alkanes, such as CCl4, CFCl3, (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), C2F3 Cl3 (CFC-113), C2F4Cl2 (CFC-114) Fully halogenated alkanes are anthropogenic and act as a source of ClOX, which plays a key role in photochemical processes occurring in the ozone, especially regions with heights 30-50 km.
ii) partially halogenated alkanes, eg, CH3Cl, CHF2Cl (CFC-22), CH3CCl3, CHFCl2 (CFC-21) Sources of CH3Cl are natural, while other halogenated alkanes partly mentioned above are anthropogenic origin . These gases also act as a source of stratospheric ClOX.
(d) Bromide substances
Fully halogenated alkanes, eg, CF3Br These gases are anthropogenic and act as a source of Brox, which behaves in a manner similar to ClOX.
(e) Hydrogen substances
i) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrogen, the source of which is natural and anthropogenic, plays a minor role in the stratospheric photochemical processes.
ii) Water (H2O) Water, the source of which is natural, plays a vital role in photochemical processes as the troposphere and the stratosphere. Local sources of water vapor in the stratosphere include methane oxidation process and in a lesser extent that of hydrogen.
Annex II: Exchange of Information
- The Parties to this Convention recognize that the collection and exchange of information is an important aspect for the implementation of the objectives of this Convention and to ensure that any action that might be taken is fair and equitable. Consequently, the Parties shall exchange scientific information, technical, social, economic, business, and commercial law.
- Parties to the Convention, when deciding what information should be collected and exchanged, should consider the availability of information and the cost of getting it. Moreover Parties recognize that cooperation in accordance with this Annex should be done in accordance with national laws, regulations and practices regarding patents, trade secrets market, and protect confidential information and property.
1. Scientific information
This includes information on:
(a) Research planned and ongoing, as both governmental and private, to facilitate the coordination of research programs and to make more effective use of valuable resources nationally and internationally;
(b) The emission data needed for research;
(c) Scientific results published in peer reviewed literature on the understanding of chemical and physical processes of the earth’s atmosphere and its sensitivity to change, especially on the state of the ozone layer and the effects on human health, environment and climate, which may come as a result of changes throughout time or in the vertical distribution of ozone or total content of his column.
(d) An assessment of the research results and recommendations for future research.
2. Technical information
This contains information on:
(a) Availability and replacement costs for chemical substances and alternative technologies for reducing emissions of substances that modify the ozone layer and planned research and continuously made about it.
(b) limitations and any risks involved in the use of chemicals or other substances, and alternative technologies.
3. socio-economic information and trade of substances referred to in Annex I
This includes information on:
(a) Production and production capacity;
(b) The use and form of use;
(c) Import / Export-in;
(d) The costs, risks and benefits of human activities that may not directly affect the change of the ozone layer and effects of regulatory actions taken or to be considered for the control of these activities.
This includes information on:
(a) national laws, administrative measures and legal research relating to the protection of the ozone layer.
(b) International agreements, including bilateral agreements, relating to the protection of the ozone layer;
(c) Methods and terms of licensing and availability of patents relating to the protection of the ozone layer.
(made at the time of the adoption of the Final Act of the Conference of Representatives of Full Force for the Protection of the Ozone Layer )
- Delegations of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Federal Republic of Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland express their regret for the absence of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer of any provision for solving disputes mandatory third party at the request of a party. Consistently with their traditional support for such a procedure, these delegations appeal to all Parties to the Convention to use a possibility of a declaration under Article 11, paragraph 3, of the Convention.
- Delegation of Egypt stresses the importance attached by his Government to international and national efforts to protect the environment, including the ozone layer. For this reason, it has participated since the beginning of the preparatory work for the Conference of Representatives Full Force for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the adoption of the Convention and resolutions. While it is agreed by consensus in Article 1 of the Convention, the delegation of Egypt understands that paragraph 6 applies to all regional organizations, including the Organization of African Unity and the League of Arab States, anticipating that they meet the conditions set out in that Article , namely, that they have competence in respect of matters covered by this Convention and are duly authorized by their Member States in accordance with their internal rules of procedure. While it is agreed by consensus in Article 2 of the Convention, the delegation of Egypt declares that the first sentence of paragraph 2 of that article should be read taking into account the third paragraph of the entry. While it is agreed by consensus Resolution No.1 for Institutional and Financial Planning, Delegation of Egypt stated that its approval to the third paragraph of the entry of the resolution is without prejudice to its position on the method of allocating contributions between Member States, with particular reference to option 2, which he had supported during preparative discussions document UNEP / WG.94 / 13, where 80 percent of the costs will be covered by the industrialized countries and the remaining 20 percent distributed among member states based assessment of the level of the United Nations.
- In relation to Resolution No. 2 in about chlorofluorocarbons Protocol, the Japanese delegation is of the opinion that a decision whether or not to continue work on a protocol, must await the results of the work of the Coordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer. Secondly, in relation to paragraph 6 of resolution mentioned above, Japan’s delegation opinion is that each state should decide for itself how to control chlorofluorocarbons emissions.
- Delegation of Spain declares, in accordance with the interpretation of the President of the Conference in his statement dated 21 March 1985, that his government understands paragraph 6 of Resolution Protocol regarding chlorofluorocarbons that addresses itself exclusively to individual states, the who are required to control or production limitations and not use third countries or regional organizations in relation to these countries.
- Delegation of the United States, declares that he understands that Article 15 of the Convention regional integration organizations, affluent, where no Member State is not a Party to the Convention or the relevant protocol, will have one vote each. Further understands that Article 15 does not allow any double vote by regional integration organizations, affluent and their Member States, which means organizations, affluent regional integration cannot ever vote alongside their Member States which are party to the Convention or the relevant protocol and vice versa.
This publication contains the text of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer as adopted by 28 states on 22 March 1985 in the Conference of Representatives Full Force for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and as filed with the Secretary General of the United Nations. Vienna Convention encourages cooperation among government for scientific research, the eye systematic ozone layer, monitoring of CFC production and exchange of information. Although it did not contain any commitment to take any action to reduce the production or consumption of CFC’s, however, the Vienna Convention was an important step: nations agreed in principle to tackle a global environmental problem before its effects or felt its existence be proved scientifically, perhaps the first example of acceptance of “precautionary principle” in major international negotiations. Also, important Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete 1987 Ozone Layer was negotiated under the Convention. Vienna Convention continues to provide guidance for monitoring, calibration and archiving of measurements of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone, and vertical profiles of ozone, UV-B radiation, other species and tracking atmospheric aerosols. He also serves as a guide for research-related activities that are essential to understanding the problem of the depletion of the ozone layer and the interactions between the ozone layer and climate. As of November 2001, 184 parties have ratified the Vienna Convention.
Environment Programme of the United Nations
O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: (254 2) 62 3850 · Fax: (254 2) 3601 3913/62 62
http://www.unep.org/ozone or http://www.unep.ch/ozone
Email: Ozoneinfo @ unep.org
The conference agreed that the statements contained in paragraphs 1 through 3, as submitted on 21 March 1985 and the statements contained in paragraphs 4 and 5, as submitted on 22 March 1985, shall be attached to the Final Act.